Scytale
Scytale
The scytale is known as the first cryptographic device, used in 400 B.C. by the Spartans. It consisted of a baton and a papyrus strips with letters. These papyrus strips would only reveal the message sent between Spartan generals if the baton they were wrapped around had the same dimensions as the one that the message was written on.
Sparta
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scytale
Wikipedia
400 B.C.
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Greek
Cipher tool
Caesar Cipher
Caesar Cipher
The Caesar Cipher is one of the oldest ciphers, used by Julius Caesar to communicate with his generals. It works by shifting the alphabet down by a fixed number, or key. Due to the simplicity, it can be broken if the crypanalyst knows that a simple substitution method has been used to get the ciphertext, or the Caesar Cipher itself.<br /><br />One method of deciphering a Caesar Cipher is by using a brute approach and noting the frequency of each letter used- then comparing those frequencies to a frequency distribution chart of the alphabet. For example, 'E' is the most freqently used letter in the alphabet. Theoretically, if 'G' is the most freqently used letter in the ciphertext, you may able to shift the alphabets so that 'E' aligns with 'G' to decipher the rest of the ciphertext.
Julius Caesar
https://www.cs.mcgill.ca/~rwest/wikispeedia/wpcd/wp/c/Caesar_cipher.htm
Cs.mcgill.ca
44 B.C.
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English
Cipher